The DES parity calculation works as follows:

00001001 = 9

- for each byte, count the number of bits that are set. For the example byte above, 2 bits are set

- if the number of bits set is odd, do nothing

- if the number of bits is even, set or unset the least significant bit to make the count odd

00001000 = 8Reading through Erlang's crypto support for DES and DES3, it's up to the caller to use a valid key. For example, the NIF making up crypto:des_cbc_crypt/3 is defined as:

DES_set_key((const_DES_cblock*)key.data, &schedule); DES_ncbc_encrypt(text.data, enif_make_new_binary(env, text.size, &ret), text.size, &schedule, &ivec_clone, (argv[3] == atom_true));DES_set_key() is an OpenSSL compatibility function that, in this case, is identical to DES_set_key_unchecked(). The corresponding checking function, DES_set_key_checked(), returns some information about the key: -1 (if the parity is even) and -2 (if the key is weak).

So I was curious how to go about setting the parity in a functional language. It turns out to be quite easy:

-module(des_key). -export([set_parity/1, check_parity/1, odd_parity/1]). set_parity(Key) -> << <<(check_parity(N))>> || <<N>> <= Key >>. check_parity(N) -> case odd_parity(N) of true -> N; false -> N bxor 1 end. odd_parity(N) -> Set = length([ 1 || <<1:1>> <= <<N>> ]), Set rem 2 == 1.

set_parity/1 uses a binary comprehension to read 1 byte at a time from the 8 byte key.

check_parity/1 checks whether an integer has an odd or even parity and returns the integer XOR'ed with 1 if the parity is even.

odd_parity/1 counts the bit set by using a bit comprehension to return the list of bits that are set. The modulus of the length of this list returns oddness/evenness.

To test if this is correct, we can check if a few cases (all even bits or all odd bits in a key) work and then test that a key with corrected parity produces the same cipher text as the uncorrected key:

test() -> <<1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1>> = set_parity(<<0:(8*8)>>), <<1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1>> = set_parity(<<1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1>>), K1 = <<"Pa5Sw0rd">>, K2 = set_parity(K1), Enc = crypto:des_cbc_encrypt(K1, <<0:64>>, "12345678"), Enc = crypto:des_cbc_encrypt(K2, <<0:64>>, "12345678"), <<"12345678">> = crypto:des_cbc_decrypt(K2, <<0:64>>, Enc), ok.,

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